RWANDA-RADIO INKINGI: IKIGANIRO KU BUHINZI

IKIGANIRO KU BUHINZI MU RWANDA

RADIO INKINGI 

24/02/2016

Isesengura ku byanditswe ku buhinzi mu Rwanda muri iyi minsi [1]

Ndereyehe Karoli[2]

1. Iriburiro

Nk’uko twigeze kubigaragaza mu kiganiro nagiranye na Radio Inkingi kuwa 22 Nyakanga 2015[3], ikibazo cy’ubuhinzi muri rusange gifitanye isano na politiki ya FPR mu rwego rwo kuzamura ubuhinzi n’ubukungu mu Rwanda.

Hari inyandiko twagiye tubikoraho[4] cyangwa zasohotse mu binyamakuru byo mu Rwanda. Izo nyandiko zose n’ibiganiro zanengaga uko FPR yahushije politiki y’Ubuhinzi mu Rwanda.

Inyadiko zasohotse mu binyamakuru muri iyi minsi ziraza zishimangira imyanzuro yavuye muri iryo sesengura ryacu.

Mu kiganiro nagiranye na Radio-Inkingi kuri 24/02/2016[5], nasezeranije abatwumva kuzabagezaho inyandiko irambuye y’ibyo navuze, nsesengura inyandiko ebyiri zikurikira:

Iya mbere ni inyandiko yatangajwe na Radio France Internationale (RFI) no muri “Economy Watch” ivuga icyegeranyo cyakozwe n’umushakashatsi Dr. Neil Dawson wo muri Kaminuza ya East Anglia mu Bwongereza ivuga iti :  Rwanda : “Rwandan agricultural policies hurting the poorest of the poor: study ; 08 February 2016.” Bishaka kuvuga ko “Politiki y’ubuhinzi mu Rwanda ibangamiye ku buryo bukomeye abakene kurusha abandi”.

Iya kabiri ni inyandiko ya Minisitiri w’Ubuhinzi n’Ubworozi, Dr. Gerardine Mukeshimana, yasohotse mu kinyamakuru Igihe kuri 16/02/2016, aho avuga ati : “Ibibazo byugarije ubuhinzi bifitanye isano n’ubushakashatsi bwasubiye inyuma-Minagri”.

Kugira ngo twumve neza aho izi nyandiko ziganisha twifashishije :

-                      Politiki ya FPR yo kuvugurura ubuhinzi Rwanda[6]

-                      Itegeko rigenga ubutaka[7] :

-                      Inyandiko yakozwe n’Ikigo LPDI (Land Deal Politics Initiative)[8]:

-                     N’izindi nyinshi abashakashatsi bakoraga muri ISAR (Institut des Sciences Agronomiques du Rwanda) batangaje mu Rwanda no mu nama mpuzamahanga,  zivuga ku bushakashatsi hagati ya 1982 na 1992[9] .

Ese koko FPR ishishikajwe no guteza abanyarwanda benshi imbere?

Ministri w’Ubuhinzi n’Ubworozi Dr. Gerardine Mukeshimana yavuze ko abahinzi ari 85% y’abanyarwanda.

None se wavuga ko igihugu gitera imbere, igihe ubukungu bw’igihugu burenze 40% bwikubiwe n’abantu batageze kuli 10%; ubukene bukaba bwugarije abanyarwanda barenze 60% kandi muri aba 90% baba mu cyaro?

Igihe abana barara ubusa, ntibashobore kujya mw’ishuri cyangwa ngo bashobore kwivuza, igihe umuhinzi umwambura isambu akangara atagira ikimutunga, wavuga ko iterambere riherereye he?  Igisubizo cyaba ahari se ko iryo terambere ribarizwa mu mijyi no mu magorofa ayubatsemo? Imijyi ituwe n’abantu bangahe se?  Nyamara uwavuga ati: “umwana yapfuye akivuka” ntiyaba aciye inka amabere!

Kwemeza politiki ntibigora, hagorana kuyishyira mu bikorwa iyo utabyitondeye.

Ubundi iyo wemeje politiki, unagena n’isumbana ry’ibikorwa uteganya, akaba ari nabyo bizagaragaza uko uzagenda ushora imari izaboneka. Ikibazo cya politiki ya FPR muri rusange ni imyumvire y’amajyambere n’igipimo kigaragaza uko iterambere n’imibereho myiza y’abaturarwanda igenda igaragara.

Nibyo koko, imibare ubutegetsi bwikorera bugaha abanyamahanga ituma u Rwanda ruratwa mu binyamakuru by’amahanga[10] kimwe n’abandi baba bashaka kubirisha, ariko abanyarwanda bo siko bose bari ahashashe neza, abenshi birirwa bataka inzara n’imibereho mibi, dore ko “agahinda k’inkoko kamenywa n’inkike yatoreyemo”. Abanyarwanda kandi bazi aho ubukungu buherereye n’impamvu.

Amakuru atangazwa ku bibazo by’ubuhinzi mu Rwanda uko byugarije abaturage aboneka kuri za murandasi-nyarwanda : http://www.umuhinzi.com/ , http://www.kigalitoday.com, http://izubarirashe.rw/[11]

2. Inyandiko ebyiri dusuzuma

2.1.  Inyandiko y’abashakashatsi bo mu Bwongereza.

Umushakashatsi Dr. Neil Dawson aranenga politiki y’ubuhinzi mu Rwanda. Ubushakashatsi bwakozwe burerekana ko iyo politiki ikiza abakire, igatindahaza abakene.

Nk’uko inyito y’iyo nyandiko ivugaRwanda Hit Surprisingly Bad by the ‘Green Revolution”,

icyakagombye kuba itsimbura n’ubusugire bw’icyatsi kibisi gitoshye, kigaragaza ubusugire bw’ubuhinzi  n’ubwivugurure bufatika – bigaragaza ko umusaruro wiyongeye -, aho gukiza abakene birabatindahaza.

Nta gitangaza, kuko politiki y’iterambere ya FPR ititaye ku bakene. Ahubwo wagira ngo iyo politiki yakorewe guha icyuho abakire ngo babone uko batwara abakene uduke bari basigaranye, bahereye ku masambu yabo.

Dr. Neil Dawson arandika ko guhatira umuhinzi igihingwa kimwe ari ukumushyira mu kaga gakomeye, we n’umuryago we. Ahera ku ngingo ivuga ko guhinga kijyambere ukoresheje inyongera musaruro bigombera gushora imari, kandi abahinzi b’abakene iyi mari ntayo bafite. Noneho iyo uhindukiye ukabategeka uti: “nimuhinge iki, nzabaha umwenda, nimugure imbuto z’indobanure, nimugure amafumbire mvaruganda, n’imiti ivura ibihingwa, kandi utazahinga atyo nzamwaka isambu nyihe abashoboye kubikora; ndetse kubera ibyo nzashyiraho n’imisoro y’isambu”, bibyara akaga. Umutegetsi uvuga ati: “ubona atazashobora gukora ibi byose, nzamwaka isambu[12] nyihe abashoboye kuyihinga hakurikijwe imihigo”, aba ahotoye burundu abo ategeka.

Umushakashatsi  Dr. Neil Dawson avuga ko iyo umuntu abona atazashobora ibyo byose, ahitamo kugurisha isambu ye hakiri kare, akangara ajya guca inshuro, agasubira inyuma y’aho yari ari, abana bakaba ba mayibobu.

Turasanga imyanzuro y’uyu mushakashatsi iri mu kuri kubera impamvu zikurikira:

-                     Icya mbere:  Leta ntiyishingira ko ibyo itegeka uwo muhinzi bizatuma yunguka, kuko idategeka abacuruzi kuzamuha igiciro gikwiye;

-                     Icya Kabiri: Leta ntimwizeza ko abandi bazahinga ibyo akeneye, atihingiye cyanga ngo abibone ku masoko ku buryo ashobora kubigura mu mafranga avuye mu musaruro we, kandi abone n’icyo yishyura inguzanyo;

-                     Icya gatatu: Nta nshingano Leta ifata ko imbuto zizaba ari nziza, ko zizera uko bikwiye; ko biramutse bitabaye ibyo yasonerwa imbuto n’ifumbire byazigiyeho kabone n’iyo yaheba imibyizi yashyizemo;

-                     Icya kane:  Ntabwo leta yishingira cyangwa yashyizeho ubwishingizi ko ibihe nibiba bibi, imvura igakabya cyanga se ikabura, indwara zigatera, umusaruro ukaba muke, umuhinzi azishyurirwa n’ubwishingizi cyanga agasonerwa inguzanyo yafashe.

None se uretse umuturage uhomba, yaba abakozi ba Leta bamuhagarikira, yaba abategetsi n’abayobozi biyemeje imihigo, yaba abadepite biyita intumwa za rubanda bemeje amategeko yo kwambura umuhinzi ubutaka bwari bumutunze, bazahomba iki muri ibi byose?

Ni umuturage uzaburara, abana be baburare, abure amafranga yo kwishyura inguzanyo y’ubuhinzi, abure aya « mutuweli », abure uko yivuza, kandi bamwambure n’isambu ye. Ngako akaga, si amahano gusa,  ni akumiro rwose.

Umushakashatsi Dr. Neil Dawson ntahakana ko hari abongereye umusaruro, ariko aravuga ko batarenze 1/3 cy’abahinzi baganiriye na we. Bivuga ko niba abahinzi ari 85% y’abanyarwanda, nk’uko Ministri w’Ubuhinzi n’Ubworozi avuga, imiryango y’abahinzi b’abanyarwanda 57% ntibongera umusaruro:  ni ukuvuga ingo zigaburira hafi 7.000.000 y’abantu!

Iyi miryango itazashobora kugera ku mihigo, ifite ubwoba ko izamburwa amasambu, ari nako yugarijwe n’ubukene. Birumvikana rero ko hirya no hino mu Rwanda birirwa batabaza ko inzara ibugarije.

Ikibazo gikomereye abanyarwanda rero, cyane cyane abahinzi-borozi, ni ukudahabwa uburenganzira bw’amahitamo. Amahitamo yabaye kirazira mu Rwanda, n’ubwo birirwa babeshya abanyamahanga ngo bafata ibyemezo babanje kubaza abaturage (good governance). Nyamara ni ukwumvira gusa ibivuye i Bukuru, ugakurikira buhumyi, wakwanga ukabizira.

Hari abandi basesenguye ibibera i Rwanda, basanga inyuma y’iyo politiki y’ubuhinzi hashobora kuba hihishe ubucuruzi bukomeye cyane, mu byemezo bifatwa hakaba hihishemo inyungu z’amasosiyete acuruza amafumbire, imbuto z’indobanure n’imiti, nk’amasosiyete y’abanyamerika Monsanto na Syngenta[13] ; byatangaza kandi ziramutse zidakorana n’ibigo cyanga amasosiyete yashyizweho na FPR[14], yeguriwe amabanki, amasoko y’ubucuruzi n’ubwikorezi bw’imizigo bw’izo nyongera musaruro.

2. 2. Inyandiko ya Ministri w’ubuhinzi n’ubworozi mu Rwanda.

Ministri w’Ubuhinzi n’Ubworozi araganya, agira ati : “Bimwe mu bibazo bigaragara mu mwuga w’ubuhinzi muri iyi minsi bikomoka ku ruhererekane rw’ibintu byinshi birimo imihindagurikire y’ibihe n’ubushakashatsi muri iyi ngeri bwasubiye inyumaIyi mpamvu yiyongeraho kuba nyuma y’uko Ikigo cy’Ubushakashatsi mu by’Ubuhinzi (ISAR) gisimbuwe n’Icyigo cy’Igihugu cy’Ubuhinzi n’Ubworozi (RAB), ubushakashatsi bwasubiye inyuma…

Arongera ati: “Ubushakashatsi bwabaye nk’ubugana hasi cyane. Ibibazo turi kubona byinshi ni umusaruro muke wasigaye ku byo ISAR yasize. Bivuga ko RAB itabashije gutubura imbuto, ngo ikore imbuto nshya, ikore inyongeramusaruro, hanyuma inakore ubushakashatsi ku bibazo turi guhura na byo, bityo itange ibisubizo…

Nk’uko mperutse kwandika tariki ya 19/11/2015  ibyo nari navugiye mu kiganiro natanze kuri Radio Inkingi tariki ya 07/10/2015[15], ikibazo cy’u Rwanda ni uguhora dusubiramo, dusenya ibyo abandi bubatse tukongera tugatangira bundi bushya. Kubera iyo mpamvu ubuhinzi n’ubushakashatsi bujyana nabwo bwarahakomerekeye cyane.

Ubushakashatsi ku buhinzi n’ubworozi mu Rwanda bwatangiranye na INEAC (Institut National pour l’Etude Agronomique du Congo-Belge) muri 1930, ariko bufata isura kuva muri 1950 [plan decennal de developpement pour le territoire du Ruanda-Urundi (1950-1960)], hagamijwe cyane cyane kubonera umuti ibibazo by’inzara byari byibasiye u Rwanda.

Ababiligi bahererekanije n’abanyarwanda imirimo ya INEAC nyuma y’ubwigenge muri 1962, ubwo haba havutse ISAR. Ubushakashatsi bwatangiye gufata intera ifatika kuva muri za 1972 dore ko ari naho impuguke z’ubuhinzi mu Rwanda zari zitangiye kwiyongera. Ni ukuvuga ko intambara itera muri 1990 ISAR yari imaze imyaka 28 ikora.

Ubushakashatsi bwari bwatangiye gushyirwaho umurava n’imari ihagije kuva kuri « Plan directeur » y’ubushakashatsi yatangiye muri 1985. Intambara yateye ISAR iri mu cyiciro cya kabiri, ari naho hari hamaze gushyirwaho ibigo  bya ISAR 8 byari bigenewe kwita ku bihingwa n’imirimo bibereye buri karere. Ni ukuvuga Ruhengeri: Ibirayi – Ibigori;  Rwerere: Ingano – Ibirayi – Ibigori. Mutara:  Umuceri – Soja – Ibigori bisukirwa – Ubworozi ; Kibungo: Urutoki ; Karama:  Amasaka – imyumbati – Ubworozi  ; Rubona: Imyumbati – Ibijumba – Ikawa – amasaka – Ibishyimbo – Arboretum ; Gakuta-CZN: Amashyamba - ibihingwa bikwiranye n’ubutaka bushaririye cyane ; Ntendezi:  Urutoki .

Birababaje kubona nyine ibikorwa ISAR yari imaze kugeraho mu myaka isaga mirongo itatu, bisenywa n’intambara. Ikindi kandi, iyo usomye inyandiko nyinshi zisohoka mu Rwanda nyuma y’aho FPR ifatiye ubutegetsi, wagira ngo abashakashatsi ntacyo bakoze muri iyo myaka. Ni yo mpamvu mboneyeho akanya ko gushimira Ministri w’Ubuhinzi n’ubworozi kuba yaribukije abandika n’abakora ubushakashatsi ubu, kujya basoma ibyo bagenzi babo bakoze, kandi bakavuga inyandiko zabo, aho gukora nk’aho u Rwanda n’ubushakashatsi buriho kuva muri 1994 gusa. Ubumenyi n’ikorana-buhanga si ibintu byakagombye guhindagurika nka politiki. Mu bihugu  abayobozi bazi icyo bakora, politiki irahinduka ariko gahunda z’ubushakashatsi, n’ubwo zishobora kudindira kubera amikoro make, ntizisisibiranwa.

Ubushakashatsi ni ubumenyi, ntabwo ari nk’inzu usenya igahinduka ivu. Ibyagezweho mu bushakashatsi biba byanditswe, byaravugiwe mu nama mbwirwaruhame z’abashakashatsi, uwashaka kubimenya rero, afite ubushake, ntiyabibura. Ikindi ni uko ubushakashatsi buhenda. Ntabwo rero uRwanda rukize birenze ku buryo rwakwishora mu gusubira mu byakozwe, ari nako runashakira ibisubizo ibibazo bishyashya byadutse ubu!

Ni byo koko hari imbuto (germoplasme) zatikiye, amako y’inka n’intama yari amaze kurobanurwa yarangijwe, ariko byose biranditse kandi hari n’ibigo mpuzamahanga byakoranaga na ISAR, ndetse n’ibindi bigo by’ubushakashatsi byo mu bihugu duturanye, twahererekanyaga imbuto. Hari ubushake rero, umuntu yakongera akabyegeranya. Icya ngombwa ni ubushake bwa Politiki.

ISAR yari imaze kugera kuri byinshi mu bushakashatsi bw’ibihingwa. Biteye isoni n’agahinda kwumva ngo abantu bahinze imyumbati cyanga indi mbuto ntiyera, ngo kuko bayizaniwe n’abasakaza-imbuto bayivanye mu mahanga, ngo ntiyamera cyanga ntiyera. Urebye ibyari bimaze kugerwaho mbere y’intambara, usanga Ministri G. Mukeshimana avuga ukuri rwose.

Hari hararobanuwe imbuto zitari nke zikwiranye n’ubutaka n’uturere tw’u Rwanda, kandi hakorwa n’ibindi bitari bike. Reka dutange ingero munani mu byinshi ISAR yakozeho:

1.    Ibinyabijumba:

-            Mu Birayi hari Sangema yo mu misozi ifite ubutaka burumbutse; hari Cruza yo mu misozi ifite ubutaka busharira, n’izindi nka Mabondo, Kirundo, Kinigi, Gahinga,  Montsama ;   zahimbwe cyanga zirobanurwa na PNAP (Rwandan national potato research program) mu Ruhengeri. Inyinshi muri izi mbuto zeraga zirenza toni 15/ha. ISAR yakoranaga na CIP (International Potato Center) iba i Nairobi- Kenya na Lima-Perou;

-            Mu Myumbati hali nka Creolina, Kibombwe, Kiryumukwe, Eala, Maguruyinkware, Mulundi   zeraga  toni zirenze 20/ha. Kuri iki gihingwa, kimwe no ku bijumba, ISAR yakoranaga na IITA (International Institute of Tropical Agriculture) iba muri Nigeria (Ibadan);

-            Mu Bijumba hari nka Tura(tugure), Mugande, Karebenzungu, Masetsa , Gihingumukungu, Nserura, Rusenya, Nsasagatebo, Gahungezi, Wadada, Rutambira n’izindi zashoboraga kurenza toni 15/ha.

2.    Ibinyamisogwe:

-            Mu Bishyimbo hari Umubano, Vuninkingi, Puebla, Gisenyi Ngwinurare, Mabondo Urunyumba zeraga hafi ya 1, 5t/ha.

-            Ntawakwibagirwa na Soya twafumbizaga rhizobium

-            Amashaza yari muri collection.

ISAR yakoranaga na  CIAT (International Center for Tropical Agrigulture) iba i Cali muri Colombia na CIRAD (Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement) iba i Paris, France.

3.    Ibinyampeke:

-            Mu Bigori ISAR yariho itunganya imbuto zisukuye zikomoka kuri za Nyirakagori, Bambu, Katumani n’ibyoherezwaga na CYMMYT (Mexico) zeraga hafi toni 4/ha, kandi umuturage yibikira imbuto.

-            Mu Masaka hari SVR 157 Bralirwa yafashaga abaturage guhinga ikanayigura kuko yayengeshaga inzoga,  hakaba n’andi moko menshi abaturage bakundaga.

ISAR yakoranaga na ICRISAT (International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics).

-            Umuceri nawo ISAR yari imaze kuwubonera abawukoraho, nk’uko Ingano nazo zari zifite amoko menshi atangwa mu giturage.

4.    Ibiti by’imbuto ziribwa, imboga n’indabo (Verger –fruit et horticulture):

-            ISAR yari yarabuze uko yahagarika  « greening » n’ibyuririzi bindi byarimbuye Amacunga .

-            Naho Urutoki hari hamaze gukorwa « germoplasme » y’amoko 62 (cultivars) i Rubona na « laboratoire » yo koza insina  hakoreshwejwe gusobanura imibiri « culture de tissu in vitro », ibi byombi bikorerwa hamwe no muri IRAZ (Institut de Recherche Agronomique et Zootechnique) iba i Gitega/ Burundi.

-            ISAR yari imaze kurobanura Avoka yamamaye mu baturage cyane kandi irabafasha.

-            Hari kandi n’icyegeranyo « collection » cy’Inanasi n’amoko y’Imboga n‘Indabyo binyuranye.

5.    Ibihingwa byihariye:

-            Mu makawa hari Mibilizi, Bourbon Mayagwez, Jackson, Catura, Catuai… hashakwa n’uko udukoko n’indwara zarwanywa ndetse n’uko ikibazo cy’isaso cyakemuka hakoreshejwe « agroforesterie » twafatanyagamo na ICRAF (International Center for Research in Agroforestry)/Nairobi,Kenya, n’izindi tekiniki. Pepinieres zose z’amakawa mu Rwanda zakuraga imbuto muri ISAR.

-            Icyayi, Pyretre, Quinquina byari bibitswe mw’ikoranirizo « collection ».

6.    Amashyamba:

-            Nyungwe n’andi mashyamba-cyimeza, ISAR yigaga ibyari biyarimo n’uko yashyogwashyogwa, ariko anagirira akamaro abaturage, Kaminuza zo muri Amerika zitera inkunga. Imbuto z’ibiti hafi ya byose zabonekaga muri « Centrales des graines » i Ruhande aho za pepiniyeri zose za MINAGRI zazaga gufata imbuto nziza.

-            Kuvanga ibiti n’ibihingwa « Agroforesterie »,  byari bimaze kwamamara hose ari mu mashuri no mu mishinga y’ubuhinzi, kandi ISAR yakoranaga na ICRAF Nairobi, Kenya[16].

7.    Ubworozi: 

-            Inka : Ubushakashatsi ku nka z’ibyimanyi n’amoko Jersey, Pie-noire, Brune Suisse, Sahiwal bwarakozwe n’ubwo bwagoranaga kubera cyane cyane ko bwarebaga aborozi bishoboye n’abanyemari bake n’amashyirahamwe bashoboraga kworora bya kijyambere.

Ubushakashatsi ku nka z’Inyarwanda «Ankole» zitagorana mu kuzibonera ibyo zirya n’ibyo zirisha, zihanganira indwara nyinshi ariko zikaba zatanga umusaruro mwiza bwari bwarashyizweho umurava kuva 1976 ku buryo hari habonetse inka zishobora gutanga  10L/j, harimo n’imvange yitwaga « metis trois races » Ankole-jersey-Sahiwal. Na n’ubu kandi ntibizorohera bamwe muri bariya bahinzi-borozi 56% bakennye cyane,  gutunga inka za « Kijyambere », cyane cyane abafite udusambu duto cyane.

-            Hari hatangiwe kandi n’ubushakashatsi ku Intama no ku Ihene hashingiwe cyane cyane  kuzibangurira hatagombewe imfizi (insemination artificielle).

-            Inyoni (inkoko), amafi n’inzuki byakorwaga mu mishinga ya MINAGRI na Kaminuza (UNR), nta bushakashatsi ISAR yabikoragaho.

8.    Imihingire, ikorana-buhunga n’ubumenyi bw’imibanire n’ubukungu mu bahinzi borozi (techniques agronomiques, laboratoires  et socio economie):

-            Hari byinshi byakozwe mu buryo bwo kurwanya isuri, guhinga  no kubisikanya (rotations) ibihingwa mu murima, mu buryo bwo gukoresha neza agafumbire k’imborera (n’akimvaruganda) kabonetse utica ibidukikije, mu buryo bwo kwoza no gushungura ibihingwa (culture in vitro) muri PNAP na Rubona, mu kumenya indwara n’uko bazirwanya (labo phytopathologie) no kumenya ibitabonwa n’amaso (laboratoire general);

-            Kumenya ibyo abaturage bifuza n’uko bagezwaho ibyo ubushakashatsi bubaboneye nta kubibatsindagira cyangwa se kubibahatira n’inkoni (Technology transfer). Aha ISAR yabonaga n’inkunga za FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) n’ibindi bigo by’amahanga.

Ntawarondora byose ariko ngizo ingero z’ibyagezweho na ISAR kandi ushaka ibisobanuro n’imyimerere yabyo yabisoma mu byo ababikoragaho ubushakashatsi banditse mu bitabo biri mu Rwanda no mu mahanga. Yanasangamo n’amagenekerezo (methodologies) yatumaga babigeraho, noneho abashakashatsi b’ubu bakaba babishingiraho bakomeza cyangwa se data babikunguhaza bakoresheje amajyambere n’ikorana-buhanga isi imaze kugeraho.

Ibyo Ministri G. Mukeshimana avuga rero ni byo koko. Urebye aho ISAR yari igeze, ubushakashatsi mu Buhinzi bwasubiye inyuma, kandi bwari bumaze gufata intera ifatika n’inzira nziza.

Ese ubu RAB yaba ifite inkunga n’ubushobozi bikwiranye n’ibibazo byugarije ubuhinzi mu Rwanda? Aha naho hashobora kuba hari ipfundo rya kabiri ry’ikibazo, cyaba cyiyongeye ku kibazo cya politiki y’ubuhinzi!

Umuntu ureba neza abona ko icyasubije inyuma ubwo bushakashatsi n’ubuhinzi mu Rwanda, ari ihitamo ribi rya politiki y’ubuhinzi n’ibigomba kubushyigikira.

None se wasobanura ute ukuntu wajya guhitamo uko uzateza ubuhinzi imbere, ariko  ukirengagiza ibyo abahinzi bakora (Started in September 2007, the CIP program focuses on six priority crops namely maize, wheat, rice, Irish potato, beans and cassava) [17]?

Kubona Ubutegetsi buriho nta bijumba , nta rutoki, nta  masaka (imbuto ya Gihanga) bushyira muri gahunda yo guteza imbere ubuhinzi, kandi bigaragara ko abanyarwanda benshi aribyo bahinga , bivuga ko ari byo bibatunze, ni uguhusha pe.  Reba imibare yatanzwe na servisi z’ubuhinzi igaragaza akamaro k’ibishyimbo, ibijumba, amasaka, imyumbati, urutoki (inyamunyu) , ibigori na kawa mu Rwanda[18](pp 110-111).

Niba ushaka ko umuturage abona amafranga, ni ukuvuga ko nibura bigomba kurenga gato ayo azabona amufasha kugura ibyo atiyejereje akeneye. Kandi ubu si ko bimeze. Biragaragara mu makuru acicikana ko umusaruro w’ibigori udaha amafranga umuturage ku buryo yashobora guhaha ibindi biribwa bimutungira urugo.

Nta mugayo ariko, ubundi ubutegetsi bushyirwaho bukarengera inyungu z’ababushyizeho. Niba abaturage ataribo bishyiriraho ubutegetsi, akaba ataribo bishyiriraho abadepite bashyiraho amategeko arengera inyungu z’ababatoye, birumvikana ko nta jambo bazagira mu kwemeza politiki zishyirwaho, ari zo zagombaga kurengera inyungu zabo[19].

3. Umwanzuro

Ubuhinzi bufitiye akamaro kanini abanyarwanda, ariko busaba byinshi ngo bushobore gutunga ziriya 12.000.000 z’abanyarwanda n’abaziyongeraho. Ngaho rero abategetsi nibikubite agashyi, bafate inzira nziza izarinda abanyarwanda kuzongwa n’inzara. Ikosa ribi cyane ni ugutegeka umuhinzi guhinga igihingwa kimwe n’imbuto imwe, ukamurandurira ibihingwa ushaka kugera ku mihigo igufitiye akamaro, kandi abana be basonza ntubagoboke.

Ubundi umuhinzi-munyarwanda yariteganirizaga, agahinga imbuto zivanze, agahinga itebuka n’itinda, ishobora kwicwa n’imvura cyangwa n’izuba, kugira ngo imwe nipfa indi imuramire, kandi agende asarura buhoro buhoro ibyo akeneye ngo bimutunge, akazarinda agera mu gihe cyo gusarura, ariko atarigeze aburara. Iyo uhinduye uko kubaho kwe ugomba kumubonera ubundi buryo azabaho, imvura iramutse iguye ari nyinshi cyanga izuba rigacana, ibihingwa byinshi bigapfa.

Gutegeka umuhinzi guhinga ibigori gusa, udateganya ko azuhira imvura iramutse ibuze, ni politiki mbi cyane. Abo iyo politiki mbi itagira icyo itwara ni abayishyiraho, ni abayobozi bagabiwe biyemeza imihigo: umusaruro waboneka utaboneka, ntibaburara cyangwa se ngo babure aho bahahira, kuko banafite imishahara ituma bashobora guhaha.

Nk’uko nabyanditse na mbere, gusaba umuturage guhindura imihingire ye, bigomba kujyana no  kumwereka ukanamwumvisha ko abifitemo inyungu[20] utamubeshya; ukabimufashamo ariko utamuroshye mu butindi burenze, buzamuhitana, kandi ntumukange umushyiraho igitugu kimukandamiza, wishingikirije amategeko uri ku butegetsi yishyiriyeho.

Iyaba Umuministri mu Rwanda yayoboraga koko politiki ya Ministeri ashinzwe, Ministri w’ubuhinzi yagombye kwumvisha bagenzi be ko bahushije mubyo bise kuvugurura ubuhinzi mu Rwanda.

Guhubukira gutegeka abaturage gukora ibintu bishya, bitakozweho ubushakashatsi, ngo ibivuye mu bigo by’ubushakashatsi bibanze bigeragezwe mu masambu y’abaturage kandi hamwe nabo, ni ukuroha igihugu.

References:


[2] Ndereyehe Karoli : Ingénieur Agronome , yakoze mu mushinga w’ubuhinzi mu MUTARA (OVAPAM) 1977-1986; ayobora umushinga w’ubuhinzi ku Gikongoro (PIA-PDAG) 1986-1992; ayobora ikigo cy’ubushakashatsi mu by’Ubuhinzi-Ubworozi n’Amashyamba  ISAR (1992-1994).

[3] https://soundcloud.com/radio-inkingi/nderehe-aravuga-ku-kibazo-cyubuhinzi-mu-rwanda

[6] Crop Intensification Program (CIP) : http://www.minagri.gov.rw/index.php?id=618

http://www.minagri.gov.rw/fileadmin/user_upload/documents/CIP/MORE_INFORMATION_ABOUT_CROP_INTENSIFICATION_PROGRAM.pdf

-   PLAN STRATEGIQUE POUR LA TRANSFORMATION DE L’AGRICULTURE AU RWANDA; DOCUMENT PRINCIPAL ; MINAGRI 2004

[7]  Official Gazette no Special of 16/06/2013: http://faolex.fao.org/docs/pdf/RWA131805.pdf

[8]  L’investissement agricole » facilité par l’État au Rwanda : regroupement des terres, renforcement du controle par Chris Huggins; Septembre 2013

http://www.iss.nl/fileadmin/ASSETS/iss/Research_and_projects/Research_networks/LDPI/LDPI_WP_16_FR.pdf

[9] Root Crops in Eastern Africa Proceedings of a workshop held in Kigali, Rwanda, November 1980

-   Programme National de la Promme de Terre (PNAP) M. Bicamupaka. D. Goffinet , P. Tegera et P. vander Zaag ; 1980

-   Regional wheat workshop for Eastern, Central and Southern Africa, 1; Gisenyi, Rwanda; June 1980

-   Le mouton local 1. Quelques caracteristiques zootechniques. Note Technique 6 ISAR-Butare. Ngendahayo M 1980

-   Potato research and transfer of technology in Rwanda M. Bicamumpaka and S. Nganga : Proceedings of the Regional workshop , Addis-Ababa Ethiopia ; CIP- Lima 1982

-   Le mouton local 1. Estimation de la production laitiere et evolution de la quantite d’aliment ingere pendant la phase d’allaitement. Note Technique 2, ISAR-Butare. Ngendahayo M 1982

-   Rapport du  Séminaire : La Recherche Agricole au Rwanda: Bilan et Perspectives  ISNAR 1983

-   Colloque régional a Bujumbura décembre 1983.CRDI/Canada

-   Compte rendu du deuxième séminaire régional sur l’amélioration du sorgho et du niil en Afrique de1′Est; ISAR-CRDI- SAFGRAD/ICRISAT; novembre 1984

-   Yield levels of potato crops in central Africa. Agricultural systems ; Haverkort A 1986

-   La productivite des petits ruminants dans les stations de recherche de l’ISAR. ILCA Research Report; Murayi Th, Sayers AR And Wilson RT 1987.

-   Improvement of Sweet Potato in East Africa ; CIAT-CIP-IITA; 1988

-   Productivity of the small east African goat and its crosses with Anglonubian and the alpine in Rwanda. Tropical animal health and productions; Wilson R T and Murayi T 1988.

-    Indigenous African small ruminant strains with potentially high productive performance. Small ruminant reserach; Wilson R T, Murayi T and Rocha 1989

-   Seminaire National sur la problematique de la fertilisation et du revenu du paysan sur les sols acides de hautes altitudes du Rwanda tenu a Gikongoro.  MINAGRI-Rwanda (eds), 1989.

-    Institut des Sciences Agronomiques du Rwanda:  Point de la Recherche 1962-1987;  ISAR-Butare 1989

-    Institut  des  Sciences  Agronomiques du Rwanda (ISAR) : Plan Directeur National de la Recberche Agronomique 1990 – 2000; ISAR, Butare. 1990.

-   Actes  du  Sixième  Séminaire  Régional  sur  l’Amélioration  du  Haricot  dans   La  Région  des  Grands  Lacs ;  Kigali,  Rwanda ;1991

-    Progress de la recherche sur les plantes a racines et tubercules au Rwanda. Ndamage, G., Ntwawuruhunga, P. and Mulindangabo, J ;  1992 ISAR, Butare, Rwanda, IDRC, Ottawa, Canada.

-   Production et recherche sur la banane en Afrique de l’Est et en Afrique centrale. Kirkby AR et Ngendahayo D. 1993;

-   L’agroforesterie et la GCES au Rwanda ; Comment restaurer la productivité des terres acides dans une région tropicale de montagne à forte densité de population ? Cah. Orstom, sér. Pédol., vol. XXVIII, no 2, 1993

-   Contribution de la production et de la commercialisation du ble a l’augmentation des revenus des petits paysans des regions de haute altitude du Rwanda; Munyemana A 1995; These de doctorat. Universite Hohenheim, Stutgartt.

-   Economic Impact of High-yielding, Late-Blight-Resistant Varieties in the Eastern and Central ; Rueda J L., Ewell P T, Walker T S, Soto M., Bicamumpaka M and Berrios D 1996.

-   Forage potential of eight woody species: intake and growth rates of local young goats in the high land region of Rwanda.Agroforestry systems ; Niang A,  Ugiziwe J,  Styger E and Gahamanyi A 1996.

-   Identification des sources d’information et bases de donnees sur la diversite biologique au Rwanda, Rapport final. Minagri -Kigali. Sibomana M et Gapusi R J 1997

-   Agroforestry, water and soil fertility management to fight erosion in tropical mountains of Rwanda. Soil Technology; Ndayizigiye F and Roose E 1997

-   Synthèse des résultats de la recherche  sur l’agronomie du Caféier arabica  au Rwanda au 30/03/1994 : Tropicultura  1998-99

-   La Pomme  de terre au Rwanda:Une analyse d’une filiere a hautes potentialites :  Munyemana A et  von Oppen M ; Centre International de la Pomme de Terre , CIP-Lima-Perou ;  1999

-   List of Dr Venant Rutunga’s scientific publications : http://www.editions-sources-du-nil.fr/Rutunga.htm

-   Les plantes cultivées en  régions tropicales  d’Altitude d’Afrique ;  Nyabyenda P ; CTA 2005

-   Cultures industrielles et d’exportation. Cultures fruitieres. Culture maraicheres.  Nyabyenda P, 2006.

[10] The fertile roots of Rwanda’s green revolution : http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2015/feb/19/rwanda-africa-green-revolution-fertiliser-mdgs; 19 February 2015

[11] Imbuto bahawe mu gihembwe cy’ihinga gishize zarabahombeje ; http://www.kigalitoday.com/spip.php?article28757 Yanditswe na Cyprien M. Ngendahimana 15-02-2016

-   Rusizi: Abahinzi b’umuceri ntibishimira igabanuka ry’ibiciro by’umuceri http://www.umuhinzi.com/markets/11679/rusizi-abahinzi-bumuceri-ntibishimira-igabanuka-ryibiciro-byumuceri/; January 23, 2016

-   Ngororero: Ntibavuga rumwe ku igabanuka ry’umusaruro w’ibirayi http://www.umuhinzi.com/programs/11835/ngororero-ntibavuga-rumwe-ku-igabanuka-ryumusaruro-wibirayi/; February 18, 2016

-   Barataka inzara kubera kubuzwa guhinga ngo bategereje Stevia

http://www.kigalitoday.com/spip.php?article28796; Yanditswe na Norbert Niyizurugero 18-02-2016

-   VOA – Inzara Iravuza Ubuhuha i Rwinkwavu mu Rwanda http://www.dailymotion.com/video/x3hf8lk ; 09-12-15

-   Kuba ‘Ikigega cy’Ibiribwa’ ntibibuza Musanze gucumbagira mu iterambere http://izubarirashe.rw/2015/10/kuba-ikigega-cyibiribwa-ntibibuza-musanze-gucumbagira-mu-iterambere/ ; 16/10/2015

-   Abahinzi b’ibigori barasabwa kwirinda akajagari mu byo bakora; 17/02/2016 http://izubarirashe.rw/2016/02/15155/

-   Musanze: Abahinzi b’ibirayi barinubira ibiciriro by’amakusanyirizo http://izubarirashe.rw/2015/11/musanze-abahinzi-bibirayi-barinubira-ibiciriro-byamakusanyirizo/; 06/11/2015

-   GISAGARA: Barasaba gushumbushwa vuba http://www.umuhinzi.com/community/5804/gisagara-barasaba-gushumbushwa-vuba/ ; June 11, 2013

-   Nyabihu: Akarere gafatanije na RAB barimo gushakira umuti ikibazo cy’imbuto y’ibirayi http://www.umuhinzi.com/crops/5753/nyabihu-akarere-gafatanije-na-rab-barimo-gushakira-umuti-ikibazo-cyimbuto-yibirayi/ ; June 5, 2013

-   Rulindo: abahinzi b’indabo mu gishanga cya Yanze baravuga ko umusaruro wabo upfa ubusa http://www.umuhinzi.com/markets/5749/rulindo-abahinzi-bindabo-mu-gishanga-cya-yanze-baravuga-ko-umusaruro-wabo-upfa-ubusa/; June 5, 2013

-   Icyegeranyo cy’umuryango Global Hunger Index cyo mu mwaka wa 2012 cyerekana u Rwanda nka kimwe mu bihugu bifite ikibazo cy’ingorane zo kubona ibyo kurya bihagije; Ibiherutse kuvugururwa: 25 ukwa cumi, 2012; http://www.bbc.com/gahuza/amakuru/2012/10/121025_rdahunger.shtml

[12] Official Gazette no Special of 16/06/2013; itegeko n. 43 ryo ku wa 16/06/2013 rigenga ubutaka mu Rwanda; kuva ku ngingo 52 kugeza ku ngingo 63

[13] L’investissement agricole » facilité par l’État au Rwanda : regroupement des terres, renforcement du controle par Chris Huggins; Septembre 2013

http://www.iss.nl/fileadmin/ASSETS/iss/Research_and_projects/Research_networks/LDPI/LDPI_WP_16_FR.pdf

[14] Rwandan Patriotic Front: Party builds a formidable business group; By William Wallis; September 24, 2012

http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/7fcab78c-ff1b-11e1-a4be-00144feabdc0.html#axzz41BviKQNT ;

-   The East African: Our businesses are clean, says RPF ; By Edmund Kagire Rwanda Today ; October 12   2012

http://www.theeastafrican.co.ke/Rwanda/News/Our-businesses-are-clean-says-RPF/-/1433218/1532008/-/7j64skz/-/index.html

[19]Tout comme ailleurs, l’élaboration des politiques est une affaire contrôlée par les élites au Rwanda. La majorité des petits producteurs pauvres a sans aucun doute peu d’influence sur la situation politique. Les responsables de formulation des politiques ont peu de liens institutionnels ou personnels avec les questions de développement rural, et sont nombreux à avoir une attitude condescendante, voire méprisante, envers les petits producteurs pauvres pratiquant des formes « traditionnelles » d’agriculture (Ansoms, 2009)”.

http://www.iss.nl/fileadmin/ASSETS/iss/Research_and_projects/Research_networks/LDPI/LDPI_WP_16_FR.pdf pg 10

[20]Commission Nationale d’Agriculture ,

-   Volume II : Appui à la production agricole ;  Analyse du Sous-Secteur des productions animales ; Avril 1991

-   Volume III : Productions Agricoles du Rwanda ; Zones agro-climatiques du Rwanda ; Juin 1991

-   Volume IX : La Commercialisation des Produits Agricoles au Rwanda : Février 1992

-   Rapport préliminaire de synthèse : 1992

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