FDU-Inkingi irateganya iki cyasimbura politiki y’ ubuhinzi ya FPR yicisha abaturage inzara?

Iliburiro

Ubutegetsi butita ku mibereho y’umuturage, ntibuhangayikishwe n’uko yiriwe n’uko yaraye ntacyo buba bumaze. Ubutegetsi bubereyeho gushakira ibisubizo ibibazo abaturage bafite. Ntiwatererana abanyarwanda barenze 90% maze ngo uvuge ko uri umuyobozi mwiza.

Akarusho ka FDU-Inkingi ni uko ishaka kuzanira abanyarwanda uburenganzira n’umuco wo gufatanya nabo gushyiraho ubutegetsi bubaha ijambo, igafatanya nabo gushyiraho ubuyobozi burengera kandi bukarenganura buri muntu, bubungabunga ubuzima bwa buri muntu kandi bukamuha uburyo bwo kwivana mu bukene no mu bujiji.

Kw’isonga FDU izahatanira ko n’abatagira kivurira na kirengera barenze 90% by’abanyarwanda bagira ijambo. Abo ni Abanyacyaro bagizwe cyane cyane n’abahinzi-borozi, ni abirukanwa mu mijyi kubera ko nta mikoro no kubura ababatangira ingwate zatuma bahabwa imyenda n’amabanki yatuma bakemura amananiza bashyirwaho, ni abakozi bahembwa intica ntikize, ni abavutswa akazi kandi bagashoboye, kubera irondakoko, irondakarere, ironda-shyaka cyangwa kuba barigishijwe mu gifaransa nyamara urubyiruko ruteshwa igihe mu mashuli rwiga mu cyongereza kidafite abalimu, ni abana b’abakene badafashwa na leta kubona amafaranga yo kubafasha kuliha amashuri no kwiga neza.

FDU yahisemo guteza imbere ubukungu butuma buri muntu ashobora gutungwa n’umwuga we kandi akagira imibereho myiza. Kwongera imyuga utongeye ubukungu mu cyaro, ngo abanyarwanda babone ubushobozi bwo guhaha ibyo bakeneye birimo n’ibyo abanyamyuga bakora ntacyo bimaze.

Ikindi, nk’uko utahatira umuntu gucuruza icyo adashaka, ntiwahatira umuhinzi-mworozi ikitamufitiye akamaro. FDU izakoresha politiki y’agahimbaza musyi n’ikoranabuhanga bikangulira umuhinzi-mworozi kwitabira ibihingwa byongera umusaruro, umutungo we n’uwigihugu, adahohotewe cyangwa ngo ashyirwe ku ngoyi.

Ese koko mu Rwanda haba inzara?

Iyo wumvise propaganda Tony Blair akorera Kagame, cyanga ugasoma raporo u Rwanda rutekinika (rucura) zo guha abanyamahanga, usanga handitsemo ko ubu u Rwanda rwihaza mu bilibwa, ndetse ko rusagulira n’andi masoko. Ndetse ngo na Minisiteri y’ubuhinzi n’ubworozi iherutse kwegukana muli Oslo ho mu gihugu cya Norvege, igihembo cyiswe “Yara cyo mu mwaka wa 2012gihabwa abashoboye kuzamura umusaruro w’ibikomoka ku buhinzi. Nyamara abaturage hirya no hino mu gihugu baravuga ko inzara ibamereye nabi, kuburyo ndetse bayihaye n’amazina agiye atandukanye aho bamwe bayise « Nyobozi, Tronc commun, Konoshi, Kebuka…». Amavunja yagarutse mu turere twinshi tw’ u Rwanda!

Baca umugani ngo “ Agahinda k’ inkoko kamenywa n’ inkike yatoreyemo” . Ntabwo umuntu yavuga ati ndashonje, ngo umusubize ngo “ vuga uvuye aho urabeshya”. Amaperereza yakozwe n’ibigo byigenga, bidahembwa na FPR, halimo Global Hunger Index, nayo aranyomoza ikinyoma cya Semuhanuka cy’ubutegetsi bwa FPR.

Ikigo Mpuzamahanga gikora Ubushakashatsi mu by’imirire ku rwego rw’isi (International Food Policy Research Institute – IFPRI)] gishyira uRwanda ku mwanya wa kabiri mubyugarijwe n’inzara mu karere k’umuryango w’Afrika y’Uburasirazuba.

Ibi kandi byashimangiwe n’ibyagaragajwe mu nyandiko ya “Failed states index 2011” yashyize Urwanda ku murongo wa 38 mu bihugu 60 yise “Failed States” wakwita ugenekereje “ibihugu byapfubye cyanga byafuye rubi”.

Ariko na Kagame ajya acishamo akabyiyemerera. Ubwo yasuraga ibitaro by’i Kirehe hafi y’umupaka wa Tanzaniya mu kwezi kwa kane 2009, yatangajwe n’uko hakiri abantu bakuru bakirwara Kwashi(arkor). Ariko iyo hagize umuturage wijujuse, winubye cyanga uvugiye ku mugararago ibitanye n’ibyo bamutumye, abakada bamwuriza panda-gari! Nyamara abanyamakuru b’abanyamahanga babaza Kagame bati “kuki ukandamiza abaturage bawe?” Agasubiza , ati <ni inde wababeshye? Njye baranyemera, kandi buri muntu arishyira akizana, niba mugira ngo ndabeshya , ndabatumiye muzaze mubabaze “mpibereye” kandi ku mugaragaro>.

Abuturage baremeza ko imvano y’inzara ali politiki mbi ya leta yabategetse ku ngufu guhinga igihingwa kimwe cyane cyane igihingwa cy’ibigori, byatumye indi myaka bari basanzwe bihingira yaragiye itemwa indi ikarandurwa n’ubuyobozi bw’inzego z’ibanze. Abaturage bakavuga ko izi nzego z’ibanze zibikora mu rwego rwo gushimisha abayobozi bazikuriye mubyo zita guhigura imihigo zititaye ku ngaruka abaturage bazahura nazo. Abaturage baraninubira uburyo n’ibyo basaruye bategekwa ku ngufu kubigurisha ku giciro gito n’abashoramari, ku buryo batabona icyo bageza mu rugo gihagije cyo kubatungira imiryango kandi bajya kw’isoko bagahaha bimwe bagulishije ku giciro gihanitse.

Abakozi ba Kagame baragenda bakarimagura imilima y’umuturage ngo baraca amaterasi, batitaye ko uwo muturage adashobora guhita abona ifumbire yo gushyiramo. Birazwi kandi ko kugira ngo ahakozwe amaterasi hisubize hagomba nibura amezi atandatu! Ubwo umuturage akaba abuze igihe kimwe muby’ihinga. Muri icyo gihe avukijwe uwo muturage aba atungwa n’iki? Ibyo byarabaye ku Rugarika, byarabaye i Musambira n’ahandi n’ahandi. Abategetsi bashyizweho na Kagame bo bati “ni ibyo ni uko, ni gahunda ya leta”!

Ku ya 6/3/2013 twagejejweho amafoto y’amahano yakorewe muri Kayonza mu Ntara y’Uburasirazuba bw’igihugu ku ya 3/3/2013, aho abakozi ba Kagame b’utugari twa Gitare na Rubumba biraye mu myaka bakarandura, insina bagatema. Tariki ya 7 Werurwe 2013, Umukecuru Mukarwego Fatuma w’imyaka 56 yatawe muri yombi azira ko yanze ko bamurandurira imyaka yihingiye, nta ngurane ahawe. Umutegetsi w’akarere ka Kayonza, yakoresheje inama y’abaturage afata Mukarwego Fatuma amwicaza imbere y’abaturage maze ababwira ko agiye kumufunga kubera ko ngo afite ingengabitekerezo akaba anarwanya gahunda za leta. Cyo namwe nimunyumvire da!

Mbere FPR yatemaguye intoki zo mu Bugoyi ku Gisenyi ivuga ko ari ukugira ngo abacengezi batazihishamo. Itemagura intoki i Gitarama igira ngo bahinge indabo. Yaciye ihingwa ly’amasaka mu bahinzi ba Kinigi cya Ruhengeri, ihatira Urwanda rwose guhinga ibigori nk’aho ari byo byonyine byari bisanzwe bitunze abanyarwanda bose.

Politiki iriho muri iki gihe yo kurandura imyaka y’abaturage, ugatema intoki zabo, uretse no gukungura, kuko ari amahano atarigeze aba i Rwanda, ikwiye kuvaho burundu. Igihugu ntigikwiye kuvuga ko kiri mu mahoro kandi abaturage bacyo bicwa n’inzara. Birazwi hose ko inzara n’ibibazo by’ubukungu aribyo bikurura imidugararo kw’isi yose, bikazana intambara z’urudaca. Mu Rwanda abantu benshi ntibakicishwa amasasu, ahubwo politiki y’ubuhotozi itindahaza abanyarwanda, ikabicisha inzara bucece ni yo yahawe intebe na Kagame n’agatsiko ke kayobora FPR n’igisirikari cye.

Iyo Politiki ya FPR ishyirwa mu bikorwa n’abakozi yishyiriyeho bahembwa ibya mirenge, bashishikajwe n’imihigo yo kumurikira Kagame. Ibihingwa byakwera byarumba, izuba ryacana cyanga imvura ikica imyaka, abo bakozi b’ingoma ntibazabura aho bahahira. Ibitoki birava i Buganda, ndetse twumvise ko n’iyo ibintu byagenze nabi hari abirukankira mu bihugu duturanye bakagulizwa ibigori byo kuzamurika, umuhango warangira bakabisubiza.

Kuki Kagame ahisha inzara iba mu Rwanda?

Abantu birirwa babeshya ngo u Rwanda rwateye imbere, Kagame agulira abahanga b’abanyamahanga ngo bamukorere propagande (lobbies) abariha amafaranga yagafashije abanyeshuri, agahemba abarimu, agashakira abantu imiti ngo avugwe neza n’amahanga, akomeze akandamize abanyarwanda. Aliko se ko ikinyoma kigeraho kikabura imbaraga ukuli kukigaragaza, bimaze iki rwose?. Urugero, hari ibiro byo mu Bwongereza byitwa W2Group/Delaware bihabwa 50.000$ ku kwezi muri urwo rwego rwo gutambutsa propagande. Ntituvuze umutungo ugenda kuri Tony Blair n’abakozi be baba i Kigali. Uyu muntu Blair wakagombye kuba inyangamugayo yirwa asobanura ko Kagame agomba guhabwa amafranga y’imfashanyo ngo kuko yateje abanyarwanda imbere? Ntabwo rwose abikorera izindi mpuhwe cyangwa se agahinda k’abanyarwanda kaba kamuri ku mutima, si n’ukuli abanyarwanda babamo ashingiraho, ahubwo ni uko izo mfashanyo zihagaritswe we n’abakozi be bahahombera.

Uretse abanyamahanga berekwa Kigali y’abakire gusa, FPR igakora uko ishoboye ngo batabona ubutindi buri mu cyaro, nta munyarwanda utazi ko ubukene bugejeje abanyarwanda aharindimuka. Yemwe n’abahembwa imishahara ya “Serum”cyanga abanyeshuri babuze uko bigira, barabizi.

Inzara imeze ite n’imishahara ihari?

Ibiciro by’ibiribwa by’ibanze birahanitse (reba igishushanyo mbonera ku rupapuro rukurikira) kubera ibigulishwa bike. Ibyo FPR yaciye nk’ibitoki, bituruka mu bihugu duturanye. Abahembwa imishahara mito n’abanyshuri ntibagishobora kwitunga.

Imishahara y’abantu batunzwe n’akazi gusa itanga ikigereranyo cy’ukuntu umuntu ashobora kwitunga.

Havugwa ko umuryango w’abantu batanu (umugabo-umugore- n’abana batatu) batungwa hafi na 2053 kg z’ibinyabijumba cyanga ibitoki, 225Kg z’ibinyamisogi (ibishyimbo, amashaza, soja), 170kg z’ibinyampeke (amasaka, ibigori, umuceri) ku mwaka. Imhuguke zemeza kandi ko kugira ngo umuntu abone intungamubiri zihagije[1], abishoboye bakoresha ku munsi 1kg cy’ibijumba/ibitoki/ibirayi cyanga imyumbati na 1kg cy’ibishyimbo/amashaza/soja, abasilimu bakongeraho amata, umugati, imboga, isukari (200g), n’inyama (500g), n’amavuta maze ukongeraho umunyu n’ikwi zo kubiteka. Dushingiye ku biciro biciriritse mu Rwanda rw’ubu, dusanga hagomba amafranga akabakaba hagati ya 3.000FRw na 4.500FRw. Bivuga ko umuryango wagombye kubona nibura 90.000-135.000FRw ku kwezi.

Watekereza amafranga agomba kugenda ku mashuri y’abana, kwivuza cyangwa mutuelle, umusanzu wa FPR, ayo gutanga mu “Gaciro”, gukodesha inzu cyanga kwishyura umwenda w’inguzanyo, aya za taxi cyanga Bus, ugasanga ikibazo ali ingorabahizi, gishoborwa n’umugabo kigasiba undi.

Iyo urebye imishahara y’abarimu, ivugwa muri gazeti ya leta ITEKA RYA MINISITIRI W’INTEBE N°92/03 RYO KUWA 01/03/2013 RIHINDURA KANDI RYUZUZA ITEKA RYA MINISITIRI W’INTEBE N°53/03 RYO KUWA 14/07/2012 RISHYIRAHO IMISHAHARA N’IBINDI BIGENERWA ABAKOZI BO MU BUTEGETSI BWITE BWA LETA , wibaza ikibatunga bikakuyobera.

Ntitwiliwe tuvuga ibibazo by’abanyeshuri bageze aho kujya biyahura. Birunvikana kandi, kuko abana benshi biga muri Kaminuza ya Leta ni bene “Ngofero” birihira, mu gihe ab’abakire n’abategetsi biyigira mu mahanga, abenshi bafite za bourse.

Biragaragara ko politiki y’ubuhinzi-bworozi ya FPR ntaho izageza abanyarwanda.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Urugero rw’ibiciro by’ibiribwa ku masoko y’u Rwanda (FRW) mu kwezi kwa gatanu n’ukwa gatandatu; igiciro cy’amakara ni ku mufuka .

None hakorwa iki?

Icya mbere kigomba gukorwa ni kumva ko umuturage ari we utunze urugo rwe. Kuva kera na kare, umuhinzi-mworozi yahingaga imyaka inyuranye, akaba “nyamuteganiliza akazaza ejo”. Agahinga imbuto yera vuba n’itinda, akavanga izihanganira imvura n’izihanganira izuba, imwe yapfa indi ikarokoka ikera. Mu misozi iciriritse agahinga imbuto zibikwa mu murima nk’ibijumba n’imyumbati, akagira urutoki rwo kumuramira amapfa ateye. Mu misozi miremire bagahinga ibirayi, ibigori n’amasaka bakabihunika bakoresheje uburyo bwinshi butandukanye. Kuba FPR ihatira abantu guhinga ikintu kimwe aho kubaha agahimbaza musyi ngo babyitabire ni Politiki mbi ikwiye kugawa.

Ntiturwanya ibigori rwose. Ikigori ni igihingwa cyiza iyo gihingwa mu mirima irumbutse n’ahantu hagwa imvura ihagije. Iyo imirima igundutse igihingwa cy’ikigori ni cyo gicika mbere. Ntabwo lero bihagije gufata icyemezo ngo abantu bazahinga ibigori utabafashize kubona inyongera-musaruro cyanga kubabonera amazi bikeneye.

Gushishikariza umuhinzi igihingwa iki n’iki ni ukumwereka inyungu agifitemo, ko nagisasura azashobora kugura ibyo atahinze, ko kimuzanira amafranga kurusha ibindi.

Ni ukumushakira isoko, ukamworohereza ubwikorezi no gucuruza umusaruro we, ugatunganya imihanda, ntihabeho itoneshwa ry’abacuruzi bamwe na bene inganda bagulira umusaruro w’abaturage igihe bashakiye no ku giciro bishakiye. Ni ngombwa ko haba ipiganwa, umuturage akagurisha aho ashatse. Ni ukumufasha kwongera umusaruro umuzanira inyongera-musaruro. Ibi kandi ntibigomba kuba amagambo gusa.

Nabonye ubwitange bisaba kuko nabikozemo mu Mutara no ku Gikongoro aho twari tugiye kuvana ako karere mu nzara ku buryo budasubirwaho iyo intambara idatera. Ubwo bwitange bisaba sibwo FPR igaragaza cyangwa se ikoresha muri ibi bihe.

Imibare yerekana ukuntu leta ya FPR ishora imari ivanye mu mfashanyo iteye agahinda. 12% bishorwa mu by’ingabo n’ibyo Kagame yita umutekano w’igihugu kandi ari uwe n’agatsiko ke, mu buhinzi ashoramo atageze no kuri 1%. Aho kugira ngo Kagame yirirwe apfusha amafranga ubusa agulira ibigo byo kumutaka mu banyamahanga, ashoza intambara muri Congo, ashora ibya mirenge mu kuneka no guhashya abatavuga rumwe n’ubutegetsi, ahiga abanyarwanda b’impunzi ashaka kubacura ku gahato aho kubaha ituze ngo batahe ku neza, aneka abanyarwanda kubera ibitekerezo byabo, ababuza uburyo cyanga abafunga kandi atarashoboye guca inzigo, aho kwilirwa asabiriza amafranga yo kwubaka za gereza zo kumariramo abatavuga rumwe nawe, yari akwiye gushora Imari mu buhinzi, ibiribwa bikaboneka, abafite imishahara mito bakabona uko bitunga banikenura. Bityo umuhinzi akongera umusaruro n’umutungo, akabona amafranga amukenura, nawe agashobora kurihira abana amashuri, agashobora kugura ibikoresho abanyamyuga bakora nabo bakabona akazi n’amafranga, nuko ubukungu bugatera imbere muri rusange.

Icyo FDU-Inkingi izazinira abanyarwanda, ni uguca inzigo bagahabwa ituze, hakabaho ubutabera, abanyarwanda bakabana mu mahoro, n’abatavuga rumwe n’ubutegetsi FDU izaba irimo bagahabwa umwanya, bityo amafranga apfushwa ubusa ngo bararwanya abanyarwanda, agashorwa mu buhinzi, mu mashuri, mu mavuliro n’ibindi bikorwa bya kijyambere.

Vision 2020

Iyo gahunda iteganya ko abanyarwanda bazagera ku $900 ku muntu muri 2020. Hasigaye imyaka 7 ngo tube twasingiye uwo mwaka.

Kuri ubu Urwanda rurimo ibice 2: abakire n’abakene. Ubukire bw’igihugu burenze 40% bwikubiwe n’abantu batageze kuli 10%; ubukene bwokamwe abanyarwanda barenze 60% muri aba 90% baba mu cyaro. Ubucuruzi bwikubiwe n’ibigo bya FPR bigura umusaruro w’abaturage igihe bishakiye no ku giciro bishakiye.

Abanyarwanda barenze 95% batunzwe n’ubuhinzi n’ubworozi kandi 90% y’abanyawanda baba mu cyaro, imibereho myiza y’abaturage rero ntabwo ali iyo ababa mu mijyi gusa.

FDU izakora ibishobotse byose ngo umuhinzi yihitiremo igihingwa kimunogeye, yite ku bitunga umuryango we ariko anashishikalizwe ibihingwa bimuzanira amafranga azatuma agura ibyo adashoboye kweza. Muri urwo rwego, izibanda gusakaza inyongera-musaruro (amafumbire mvaruganda, ishwagara, imiti irwanya indwara z’ibihingwa) ishore n’umutungo utubutse mu bushakashatsi bw’ubuhinzi, no mu mirimo yo guteza imbere ubuhinzi busukirwa amazi aho guhora bategereje imvura. Ibyo bizakorwa cyane cyane mu turere tw’Umutara, Ubugesera, Amayaga , no mu karere ka Rusumo.

Mu misozi miremire hazashyigikirwa: ingano, ibigori, ibirayi, amashaza n’icyayi.

Mu misozi iringaniye: urutoki, imyumbati, ibijumba, amasaka, ibishyimbo, ubunyobwa, soja, ibihwagari.

Mu bibaya n’imibande izasukirwa amazi agomewe: umuceri, ibigori, soja, ibisheke, ubwatsi bw’amatungo;

Ibindi bihingwa nk’imbuto (fruits), indabo, imboga, ibireti, itabi, etc. bizitabwaho hakurikijwe imiterere bwite ya buri karere n’iy’ubutaka.

Kugira ngo ubukungu bwiyongere mu cyaro, hazashakishwa inkunga zisesekaza imilimo y’amaboko mu cyaro “HIT-PSTP-HIMO”, izongera ubukire n’amafranga mu cyaro ku buryo bizatuma naho hongerwa imilimo n’ubucuruzi bunyuranye.

N’ubwo igitekerezo cya “Girinka” atari kibi mu mitekerereze yo gufatanya ubuhinzi n’ubworozi, ariko gishyirwa mu bikorwa ku buryo bufutamye. Kwororera inka ya kijyambere mu kiraro bisaba kuyihingira ubwatsi no kuyishakira amazi ahagije ( 50-100Lt ku munsi bitewe n’ umukamo inka izatanga). Mu mirima itaragunduka, inka iba ikeneye ubwatsi buhinze ku buso 25-50 ares ( are 1=100m2) . FDU izashyigikira ubworozi mu turere ikoranabuhanga lizatuma amatungo atanga umusaruro ushimishije.

Mu turere tubamo amasambu mato atageze kuri 1,5-2ha, FDU izashishikaliza abahinzi-borozi guteza imbere ubworozi bw’amatungo magufi cyane cyane : ingurube, inkoko, inkwavu.

Izafasha aborozi gucuruza umutungo wabo, kworora amatungo ya kijyambere no kuyashakira ibilibwa n’imiti ngo nayo yongere umusaruro ku buryo bushimishije.

Ku kibazo cy’amasambu, FDU izaca icyorezo cyateye cyo kunyaga abaturage amasambu yabo akagabirwa abatoneshejwe cyangwa se abanyamahanga.

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Umugereko 1: Ibitabo n’ Inyandiko twifashishije

  1. Republic of Rwanda ministry of finance and economic planning: Rwanda vision 2020;Kigali, July 2000
  2. Official gazette n° special of 01/03/2013: prime minister’s order n°92/03 of01/03/2013 modifying and complementing the prime minister’s order n°53/03 of14/07/2012 establishing salaries and fringe benefits for public servants of the central government
  3. Ministère de l’agriculture et de l’élevage: Plan stratégique pour la transformation de l’agriculture au Rwanda ; document principal: Kigali, octobre 2004;
  4. Par An Ansoms : Pauvreté au Rwanda : perspectives d’en bas; Mai 2009
  5. NSD/FARA Registration Unit08/12/20117:40:32 PM: Master Service Agreement by and between Government ofRwanda and W2 Group, Inc.
  6. Banque Africaine de Développement : Programme d’appui à la stratégie de réduction de la pauvreté (PASRP-III): Rwanda: Mars 2009
  7. An Ansoms :A Green Revolution forRwanda?; The Political Economy of Poverty and Agrarian Change ; June 2008

8. Mark Schreiner : Une carte de score de pauvreté au Rwanda; 1 janvier 2012

  1. Venant Rutunga , Bert H. Janssen , Stephan Mantel and Marc Janssens : in Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment Vol.5 (3&4) : 434-441. 2007; Soil use and management strategy for raising food and cash output inRwanda;

10. Heko W. Köster : Feed, animal and food production, land and fertilizer requirements of smallholders in the Great Lakes Region of Central Africa; IFDC CATALIST Project Report 2010

11. UNDP: United Nations Development Programme; Annual report 2007

12. FDU-Inkingi : Programme politique: http://www.fdu-rwanda.com/fr/principes-de-base/programme-politique/

13. The Fund for Peace : The Failed States Index 2011; www.fundforpeace.org; June 2011:http://rnanews.com/politics/5080-rwanda-again-ranks-poorly-on-failed-states-index-2011

14. UNDP- Presse release: The Rwanda National Human Development Report urges for a new push in investment and aid to achieve the MDGs.; July 2007

15. PNUD : Rapport sur le développement humain 2010 : Édition du 20e anniversaire du RDH; La vraie richesse des nations : Les chemins du développement humain; 2010

16. Présidence de la République: Commission Natonale d’Agriculture:

- Volume II: Appuis à la production agricole; Analyse du Sous-Secteur des productions agricoles; Avril 1991;

- Volume III: Les productions agricoles au Rwanda; Zones Agro-climatiques du Rwanda; Juin 1991

- Volume IX: La Commercialisation des produits agricoles ; Février 1992

17. http://issuu.com/rwandanyouthforchange/docs/brieffing_on_rwanda_current_economy_situation.

The current economy situation inRwanda: Quantitative approach and data interpretations : Research conducted on 2007-2010; June 2011

18. Rwanda: Organic law n° 08/2005 of14/07/2005 determining the use and management of land inRwanda

19. http://rwanda-in-liberation.blogvie.com/2013/03/06/abaturage-bo-mu-karere-ka-kayonza-baratabaza-kubera-ko-ubutegetsi-bubarandurira-imyaka-bukanabatemera-insina-bwitwaje-amaterasi/

20. http://jkanya.free.fr/ubusambanyimumashuli241212.html

21. http://www.bbc.co.uk/gahuza/amakuru/2012/10/121025_rdahunger.shtml

22. http://www.igihe.com/umuco/amateka/byagenze-gute-ngo-inzara-ya-ruzagayura-icike-burundu-mu-rwanda.html

23. http://inumanews.com/en/politics/512-mu-rwanda-abaturage-bamerewe-nabi-ninzara-kumpamvu-za-gahunda-mbi-yubuhinzi–leta-ya-fpr-inkotanyi-yo-iremeza-ko-abaturage-bayo-bafite-ibyo-kurya-bihagije-ko-ahubwo-batazi-kubitegura.html

24. http://www.theeastafrican.co.ke/Rwanda/News/Country+among+those+facing+food+insecurity+/-/1433218/1604210/-/10jrfy5/-/index.html

25. http://www.ireme.net/igiciro-cyibirayi-kimaze-kwikuba-gatatu/

26. http://www.ireme.net/u-rwanda-nu-burundi-nka-bimwe-mu-bihugu-bishonje-kurusha-ibindi-ku-isi-ghi/

27. http://www.igihe.com/amakuru/u-rwanda/nyamagabe-inzara-bise-konoshi-ntizabageraho.html

28. http://www.inyenyerinews.org/politiki/rubavu-amavunja-yibasiye-abaturage/

29. http://www.imirasire.com/?Ese-koko-iterambere-ryu-Rwanda-mu

30. Rwanda : la malnutrition ronge les campagnes : http://www.syfia-grands-lacs.info/index.php5?view=articles&action=voir&idArticle=1408 ; 14-05-2009

Umugereko 2:

PRIME MINISTER’S ORDER N°92/03 OF 01/03/2013 MODIFYING AND COMPLEMENTING THE PRIME MINISTER’S ORDER N°53/03 OF 14/07/2012 ESTABLISHING SALARIES AND FRINGE BENEFITS FOR PUBLIC SERVANTS OF THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT

INSTITUTION POST I.V Level Index

PresiRep

3 PRESIREP Director   of Cabinet in the Office of the President 500 D 3472 2,304,540
90 PRESIREP Messenger 500 9.II 391 277,191

OMBUDSMAN

1 OMBUDSMAN   OFFICE Permanent   Secretary 500 F 2869 1,828,988
31 OMBUDSMAN   OFFICE Secretary 500 8.II 508 360,136

SENATE

1 SENATE Clerk 441 F 2869 1,613,167
40 SENATE Secretary 300 8.II 508 216,081

CHAMBER OF DEPUTIES

1 Chamber   of Deputies Deputy 441 F 2869 1,613,167
44 Chamber   of Deputies Secretary 300 8.II 508 216,081

Prime Minister’s Office (PRIMATURE

1 PRIMATURE Director   of Cabinet 500 D 3472 2,213,400
65 PRIMATURE Secretary   in Central Secretariat 400 7.II 660 374,314

Supreme Court (CS)

1 SUPREME   COURT Secretary   General 441 F 2869 1,613,167
50 SUPREME   CS Secretary 300 8.II 508 216,081

Ministry of Internal Affairs (MININTER)

1 MININTER Permanent   Secretary 441 F 2869 1,613,167
31 MININTER Secretary 300 8.II 508 216,081

Idem autres ministères

UNIVERSITY / HIGH LEARNING INSTITUTION

1 UNIVERSITY Rector 500 E 3156 2,011,950
6 UNIVERSITY Dean   Faculty 350 2.III 1890 937,913
8 UNIVERSITY Lecturer 350 3.III 1575 781,594
14 UNIVERSITY Assistant   Lecturer 350 4.III 1313 651,576
137 UNIVERSITY Head   Central Secretariat 300 7.II 660 280,736

RWANDA TEACHERS COLLEGE (RUKARA)/ KAVUMU Campus/ Integrated Polytechnic Regional Centre

1 RTC/RUKARA Principal 441 F 2869 1,613,167
4 RTC/RUKARA Lecturers 350 3.III 1575 789,234
11 RTC/RUKARA Assistant   Lecturers 350 4.III 1313 651,576
36 RTC/RUKARA Secretary 300 8.II 508 216,081

Academic and Administrative Staff in TSS/ Academic and Administrative Staff in VTC/

1 TSS/VTC/ A0   HEADMASTER 1,141 4.II 204 330,026
6 VTC A3 231 10.II 139 45,526

SECONDARY and PRIMARY SCHOOL

1 PRIMARY   and SECONDARY SCHOOL A0   HEADMASTER 1,141 4.II 204 330,026
6 PRIMARY   and SECONDARY SCHOOL A2 300 10.II 139 59,125

RBC/KIGALI HEALTH INSTITUTE (KHI)

1 RBC/KHI Rector 500 E 3156 2,011,950
7 RBC/KHI Lecturer 350 3.III 1575 781,594
20 RBC/KHI Academic   secretary 350 4.III 1313 651,576
60 RBC/KHI Secretary 300 8.II 508 216,081

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Butare (CHUB)/ Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de KIGALI (CHUK)

1 CHUB Director   General of CHUB 500 E 3156 2,011,950
3 CHUB Consultant   Doctor 350 1.IV 2608 1,163,820
12 CHUB Junior   Consultant/Nurs 350 2.III 1890 947,080
54 CHUB Secretary 300 8.II 508 216,081

District Hospital and Health Center

1 Hospital/Health   Center Medical   Senior Specialist 330 3.III 1575 736,931
12 Hospital/Health   Center Nurse,   Midwife, Social Worker and Other Health Technician A0 300 5.II 951 404,515
18 Hospital/Health   Center Head of   Health Center A1 300 7.III 759 322,846

Province

3 PROVINCE Advisor   to the Governor of Province 330 2.III 1890 892,962
15 PROVINCE Administrative   Assistant to the Governor of Province 300 5.II 951 404,515
17 PROVINCE Secretary   in Central Secretariat 300 8.II 508 216,081

Energy, Water and Sanitation Authority (EWSA)

1 EWSA Director   General 650 E 3156 2,723,234
357 EWSA Secretary   of Water Commercial Unit 500 8.II 508 360,136

Rwanda Social Security Board (RSSB)

1 RSSB Director   General of RSSB 650 E 3156 2,723,234
118 RSSB Secretary   in Central Secretariat 500 8.II 508 360,136

National Electoral Commission (NEC)/Parastataux semblables

1 NEC Executive   Secretary 500 E 3156 2,011,950
28 NEC Secretary 400 8.II 508 288,109

National Commission for the Fight Against Genocide (CNLG)

1 CNLG Executive   Secretary 500 E 3156 2,011,950
37 CNLG Secretary 400 8.II 508 288,109

Genocide Survivor’s Assistance Fund (FARG)

1 FARG Executive   Secretary 441 F 2869 1,613,167
24 FARG Secretary 400 8.II 508 288,109

[1] http://www.fao.org/docrep/004/W0073F/w0073f41.htm#P1_11

http://www.fao.org/docrep/004/W0073F/W0073F00.HTM

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